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# Quantitative Research

A. Study design

A reading resource on different study designs for quantitative research along with the pros and cons of each design.

A short-video explaining study designs

•             Types of research design: https://youtu.be/r4CIPuOcqNs

## Don’t know how to calculate sample size? Unsure which sampling technique you are going to use? The first video is a general explanation on sample size calculation, subsequent videos give a step-to-step guide to calculating sample size for your research

### 1. Principles and concepts

•             How to Calculate Sample Size: https://youtu.be/Z2dKK1xicgs

•             Calculating Required Sample Size to Estimate Population Proportions: https://youtu.be/OyuQn-P8iQ0

•             Calculate A Sample Size of A proportion: https://youtu.be/ni3YAUF7qy4

•             Calculate Sample Size Interval of A Population Mean: https://youtu.be/i47gaNmEUM0

### 2. Online sample size calculators could be accessed here:

•             Epi Tools - Sample size calculations

These utilities can be used to calculate required sample sizes to estimate a population mean or proportion, to detect significant differences between two means or two proportions or to estimate a true herd-level prevalence

http://epitools.ausvet.com.au/content.php?page=SampleSize

•             G-Power

G*Power 3 is a statistical power analysis program designed to analyze different types of power and compute size with graphics options. It covers many different statistical tests of the F, t, chi-square, and z test families as well as some exact tests.

•             OpenEpi

OpenEpi provides statistics for counts and measurements in descriptive and analytic studies, stratified analysis with exact confidence limits, matched pair and person-time analysis, sample size and power calculations, random numbers, sensitivity, specificity and other evaluation statistics, R x C tables, chi-square for dose-response, and links to other useful sites. OpenEpi is free and open source software for epidemiologic statistics. It can be run from a web server or downloaded and run without a web connection.

http://www.openepi.com/SampleSize/SSCohort.htm

•             PS: Power and Sample Size Calculation version 3.1.2, 201

PS is an interactive program for performing power and sample size calculations that may be downloaded for free. It can be used for studies with dichotomous, continuous, or survival response measures.

http://biostat.mc.vanderbilt.edu/wiki/Main/PowerSampleSize

## C.Sampling

These videos discuss different sampling methods that you could use for quantitative study.

•             Sampling: Simple Random, Convenience, systematic, cluster, stratified - Statistics Help: https://youtu.be/be9e-Q-jC-0

•             Types of Sampling Methods (4.1): https://youtu.be/pTuj57uXWlk

## D.Statistical analysis

### 1.The basics of statistical analysis:

#### a) An introduction and overall picture

(1_an introduction to the medical statistic – 18 minutes)

#### c) Steps involved in data analysis:

i. Steps in undertaking statistical appropriate statistics:

(2_undertaking statistical analysis all in one - 47 min)

ii. Choosing a specific type of test:

1, Two broad types of statistics: descriptive and inferential statistic

(3_concepts of inferential and descriptive statistics)

2. Descriptive statistic

(4_descriptive statistic)

3. Inferential statistics (analyzing the difference between groups, correlational)

Independent T-test (5_independent t)

Chi-square (6_Chi-square)

Correlation (7_correlation)

Regression analysis (8_regression)

iii. Making a conclusion from the statistics

1. Null hypothesis testing: the p value

#### a) Overviews

The following provides an overview of multivariate analysis and a step-by-step explanation of the key concepts of regression analysis.

The video will explain the basic concept of regression with examples.

This video will provide more information on how to conduct regression analysis and interpret the statistical output.

#### b) Different Types of Regression

More detailed description of what regression is and elaborations on different types of regression – linear, logistic, multiple regression and ANOVA.

## E.Statistical software for data analysis

SPSS is a commonly used licenced statistical software. Other popular statistical software includes SAS and STATA.

There are also much statistical software which is free and available online with variable quality. A good review of this software is available at Predictive Analytics Today:

https://www.predictiveanalyticstoday.com/top-free-statistical-software/

1. GNU PSPP can be considered as an alternative to the licensed version of SPSS.

2. SAS University Edition is a free version of select SAS products for teaching and learning statistics and quantitative methods. You will need to create a profile before downloading the software.

3. JASP is designed to be easy to use and it has a great graphical interface. It is simple and familiar to users of SPSS.

https://jasp-stats.org/

1. Importing data and basic descriptive statistics with JASP:

2. Performing descriptive statistics with JASP

3. Regression analysis with JASP

### 1. Using PSPP

#### c)Regression using PSPP:

d)Linear regression using PSPP: